Reducing Sugars

Reducing Sugars

Sugar is an essential component in the production of wine. During alcoholic fermentation, yeast consume sugars found in the grape juice, or must, and converts it to ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide. In the case of certain styles of wine such as semi-sweet or dessert wines, some sugar is allowed to remain post-fermentation. This residual sugar can serve to provide a sweeter character to the final blend or play a role in microbial stability.

The primary fermentable sugars found in grapes are glucose and fructose. These two simple sugars are also known as reducing sugars because they contain functional groups capable of being oxidized under certain conditions. After reaction with excess alkaline cupric tartrate (Fehling reagents), the content of reducing sugars can be determined colorimetrically. The Fehling method is not an exact determination but an index of the reducing sugar concentration, because the reaction depends upon the amount and type of reducing sugars present. When the reducing sugar content is known at the beginning of fermentation, the potential alcohol degree can be estimated by multiplying the sugar concentration (in g/L) by 0.06.

Reducing sugars can be measured photometrically with reagents. Photometric analysis is based on the Beer-Lambert principle of absorbance in which the intensity of the color produced is proportional to the concentration of reducing sugars in the sample.


Reducing sugars can also be measured by titration. The primary fermentable sugars, glucose and fructose, contain functional groups capable of being oxidized under certain conditions. It is possible to measure the residual sugar content by a redox titration.



This category has the titrant, reagents, and solutions used for the titration of reducing sugars.

Electrodes & Probes

ORP probes for a reducing sugar titration include a version that uses the Hanna Clogging Prevention System (CPS) technology. With this technology the probe has a ground glass junction. The ground glass surface along with a PTFE sleeve repel solids found in must that can clog a standard ceramic junction.


Solutions for reducing sugars measurement include fill, storage, and cleaning solutions used with the ORP probe for a reducing sugar titration.


Accessories include a COD reactor for digesting the sample when measuring reducing sugars photometrically. Also included in this category are the cuvette cleaning solution, microfiber cloths, and test tube cooling rack.